Where is Robert the Bruce's Heart?

Marker placed over the site where Robert the Bruce's heart was buried
While living, Robert the Bruce made a request that his heart be buried in the Holy Land.  He died in 1329 and was buried in Dumfernline.  Per his request, a soldier carried his heart to the Holy Land but was killed on the trip.  The heart was recovered and brought back to Scotland where Robert's son - then King David II asked that it be buried at Melrose.

The burial place of the heart was forgotten over the centuries, but rediscovered in 1996 during an archeological excavation.  The Scots reburied the heart and held a contest for the design of the marker.

The marker has an X symbolizing St. Andrew's cross that appears on the Scottish flag, and a heart through which the X weaves.  The inscription reads, "A noble heart may have nane ease, gif freedom failye." Translation- A noble heart cannot be at peace if freedom is lacking.

Newgrange - Be There on the Solstice

Newgrange Passage Tomb Entrance - Boyne Valley - Ireland

According to Mary Gibbons, Newgrange is the oldest building in the world that is completely intact. True, this 5000 year old passage tomb is ancient, but more extraordinary is its archaeological design that allows light to pass through a lintel at the entrance and pour into the tomb once a year - during the winter solstice.

Actually, light passes into the tomb at Newgrange for about 5 days surrounding the actual solstice each year, while it remains completely dark the other 360 days.

During the daylight hours throughout the year, visitors can tour Newgrange - actually go inside the tomb on a guided tour of about 20 people at a time. The tour guide turns off the lights to leave visitors in total blackness - then a slight beam of tungsten light is gradually pushed through the lintel to give the visitors a hint of what the rising sun would do on the morning of the shortest day of the year.

That alone, is worth a trip to Ireland.  But as the man-made light is flowing up the passageway, every visitor wonders .... "Wouldn't it be magnificent to be here on the actual solstice and see the sunrise for myself?"

Every year on the Solstice, the folks managing Newgrange allow 100 people to experience the solstice from inside the tomb.  People are selected by lottery.  Anyone can enter by submitting his or her name at the Bru Na Boinne Visitor Center.  If you can't do this in person, you can email the staff and ask them to enter the lottery on your behalf

The entrance passage at Newgrange

The drawing for the 2012 solstice will be held on September 28, 2012. Children from three local schools will choose the winning applicants and 50 winners will be notified by mid October. Each winning applicant will be allowed to bring one guest and the 100 lucky people will be assigned to attend one of the five days surrounding the winter solstice of 2012 (December 21st). The event is totally dependent on the weather, so if cloud cover obstructs the sunrise, there will be no light in the tomb.

 In 2011 there were 31,531 entries for the Winter Solstice Draw for 2011. Odds of winning are slightly better than 1 in 600. That makes the Newgrange Solstice Lottery ten times easier to win than the Maryland Match 5 Lottery (matching 5).

Newgrange Passage Tomb - Boyne Valley - Ireland

I sent my application request to the staff at the Visitor Center, and got a nice email confirmation within 24 hours from Eleanor that my name had been entered.
From: Bru Na Boinne
Date: Thu, 01 Dec 2011 15:05:09 +0000
To: Mindie Burgoyne
Subject: Re: application for Winter Solstice Lottery at Newgrange 2012

Dear Mindie, Your name has been entered into the 2012 Solstice Lottery. Good Luck! Eleanor

I so hope I win.  And if I don't I'll enter every year until I die.

Farewell, Kathleen O'Hagan and Padua House of Armagh.

Padua House B&B - Cathedral Street, Armagh
On my first visit to Armagh - in fact, my first visit to Northern Ireland - my traveling companions and I searched a travel guide for B&Bs.  It was 1998.  Northern Ireland was  an occupied country with British troops, rifled up with combat gear stationed on the streets and in the alley ways.

On the road to the North from the Republic, we paged through a guidebook entitled Bed and Breakfast Ireland by Elsie Dillard and Susan Causin.  The book mentioned only four B&Bs in Armagh.  One B&B stood out - Padua House on Cathedral Road.  The text began...

Guests are made to feel like part of the family at Padua House.  Mr and Mrs O'Hagan are a friendly, welcoming couple who thoroughly enjoy their visitors.  The family lounge is shared with guests, who are encouraged to join the owners after a busy day's touring.  A hot drink is almost always available.

I had an older version of the guide. Mr O'Hagan had passed away by the time we visited.  But the authors could not have been more accurate about Mrs. O'Hagan.  Staying with her was like staying as an invited guest in someone's home.  There was no sterility or formality, just casual, genuine warmth.  We were invited to have tea and treats when we arrived well after dark in April of 1998.

During the course of that stay, Kathleen and I chatted about both being widows.  Her sympathy for my widowhood at such a young age was so strong.  We talked endlessly about the Troubles in the North, and I was able to get a first hand interview with someone who had lived through the worst of it.  We talked about coincidences and how people are brought together.  We talked about the Trinity and the meaning of 3's and how the number 3 surfaces in our lives to remind us of God's presence.

The address of Padua House was "63" Cathedral Street.  We discovered together that the "6" (the sum of two 3s) and the 3 = three 3s ... same as the Trinity.  Kathleen reminded me that 7 was God's number, reserved only for him.  A reminder of his divinity.   

I believe Padua House was a thin place, and that Kathleen O'Hagan was a subtle messenger in my life.

I wrote and entire blog post about Padua House and Kathleen  - Armagh: Twin Symbols of Conflict and Unity - where I detail coincidences and synchronicity that led me to the house and shaped my experience of Armagh and the North.  Two years later I returned to Ireland with a new husband.  We stayed at Padua House with Kathleen and her hospitality was just as rich as in 1998.

Dan and I always hoped we would return to Padua House and see Kathleen again.  She had this motherly magnetism.  I wanted to tell her about my writing and how it was coming along, how the kids were grown and the grandchildren arriving.  I wanted to ask her about the shift in the conflicts between Catholics and Protestants since occupation ended.  I wanted to chat with her about more thin places in the North.  Unfortunately, a meeting with Kathleen and a return to Padua House will never happen.

Yesterday, I received a comment on the blog post about Armagh that mentioned Kathleen.  A local Armagh resident who knew Kathleen mentioned that she has passed away earlier this year.

I looked up her obituary online and found two conflicting dates of death - March 7th and July 3rd.  Evidently one of the posts transposed the numbers - 3/7  or 7/3.  Kathleen's special numbers.

Rest in Peace, dear friend.

Related Posts - Armagh: Twin Symbols of Conflict and Unity


Two Great Books on County Mayo - by Michael Mullen

My good friend Michael Mullen has published his second book on County Mayo.  Well known as a writer of Children's Literature with books such as Mangus the Lollipop Man and Sea Wolves from the North (Wolfhound Press), Michael is also a great historian and story weaver who knows as much about his native County Mayo as any living person.

The Road Taken; a Guide to the Roads and Scenery of Mayo by Michael Mullen was published by Nonsuch Publishing in 2008.  In this book, Mullen takes the reader on a journey through the Mayo landscape- from it rugged cliffs, it tortured sea, it craggy mountains, placid lakes, rolling farmland and thriving villages, Mullen describes the landscape mentioning details most visitors would miss.  While describing the landscape, Mullen weaves into his commentary, the history of Mayo and the stories of the people in the West of Ireland.  This is wonderful travel guide for those who want to learn of Mayo's geological, anthropological and spiritual history.  Every major town or region in County Mayo is covered in this book that also includes 101 photographs.

The book reads like a geographic guide that goes in a wheel pattern with Castlebar (Mullen's hometown) as the hub of the wheel.  Most of the roads are seldom taken by travelers that come through Mayo, yet have some of the most breathtaking and interesting sites along the way.  For the traveler who wants to explore Mayo, or have a reference about the Mayo landscape, this book is will go beyond expectations.

Mayo - The Waters and the Wild published by Cottage Publications in 2004 is written by Michael and complemented with illustrations by Castlebar artist, John Peter McHugh.  Images of McHugh's watercolors complete the mystical tone set by Mullen's writing.  The book features the "wild" side of Mayo, or parts of Mayo connected to lakes and rivers.  Some of the sites covered are Croagh Patrick,  Ballintuber Abbey, Ballycroy, Delphi, Ballina, Lough Mask, Newport, Castlebar (the Mall), Kildavnet Castle, Achill Island, Doolough and Clew Bay.

Mullen covers the history of each site with a flare for story telling.  History never sounded so interesting.  For the traveler who may be going to Mayo, this book is invaluable as an easy to read historical perspective of prominent sites.  For natives of Mayo, or lovers of that part of the West of Ireland, Mayo - the Waters and the Wild is an important addition to a collection of books on Ireland.

Tintern Abbey - the Other Tintern in Ireland

Tintern Abbey - Co. Wexford, Ireland
It was on July 13th in 1798 that William Wordsworth began to write the poem, Tintern Abbey. He later wrote that  "... No poem of mine was composed under circumstances more pleasant ..."  He was, of course, writing about the famous Tintern Abbey in Wales on the River Wye, founded by the Cistercians in 1131.  The ruins of that abbey in Wales remain, surrounded by parkland.  It's a very thin place.

But there is another Tintern Abbey and it, too is a magical place.  It is located in County Wexford, and was once the most powerful Cistercian house in the south east of Ireland.  It also lay in ruins today, but there is a remarkable restoration effort going on to shore up walls and create a spiritual public place.

Tintern Abbey - Co. Wexford, Ireland

I stumbled onto to Tintern Abbey in Wexford simply because I saw it labeled on the road map. I had been to the one in Wales, and was curious.  There was nothing about this Wexford Tintern Abbey in the guidebooks.  So on a gloomy February day I drove onto the abbey property at dusk.  The ruins rose out of the landscape with such glory, that it gave me chills.

The earth energy of Tintern is vibrant.

The abbey was founded by William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke (Wales).  Marshal had been named Earl of Leinster and in 1200 he set out on his first visit to Ireland.  His ship was wrecked.  He cried out to God for rescue, and made a promise that he would found a monastery where ever he safely landed.

He washed up on Bannow Bay in Wexford and made good on his promise.  He donated 9000 acres of land to the Cistercians for a monastery.  He brought monks from Tintern Abbey in Wales (he was also a patron of that abbey) to colonize the monastic settlement.  This new abbey in Ireland was named "Tintern" after the abbey in Wales.

It is sometimes referred to as Tintern de Voto which means "Tintern of the Vow."

These beauteous forms,
Through a long absence, have not been to me
As is a landscape to a blind man's eye:
But oft, in lonely rooms, and 'mid the din
Of towns and cities, I have owed to them
In hours of weariness, sensations sweet,
Felt in the blood, and felt along the heart;
And passing even into my purer mind,
With tranquil restoration: — feelings too
Of unremembered pleasure: such, perhaps,
As have no slight or trivial influence
On that best portion of a good man's life,
His little, nameless, unremembered, acts
Of kindness and of love

 Tintern Abbey by William Wordsworth

Carol Cronin - Dingle Artist - on Thin Places Impacting Creativity

Does the landscape impact creativity?  Does where you are matter when you're trying to create? Does the earth energy in thin places affect the creative mind and spirit?

This is the first in a series of interviews with artists exploring this subject.  I met Carol Cronin while in Dingle this past May.  The Carol Cronin Gallery is located on Green Street between St. Mary's Church and Main Street.  I asked Carol if being in Dingle - or anywhere for that matter - was important to her painting.  She gave a resounding "yes" and we videotaped a short interview.

It's no small coincidence that certain landscapes attract artists, healers, and mystics. And when reviewing the fruits of their creativity, it's hard to separate the artist from the landscape. Think of Yeats without Ireland's landscape woven into his poetery. Max Ernst painted the Sedona desert long before he physically saw it.

And the great State of Maine ...It drew writers Margaret Wise Brown, E.B. White, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and countless others to its forests, towns and shoreline. Recently best-selling author, Terry Goodkind said this of Maine ...

I had to live this long, have the experiences I've had, to create what I do. I knew I wanted to write for years, but I had to be ready so I wouldn't blow it. The move to Maine was the final step.

Is it any small wonder that Paris attracted artists for generations. Is it really the light? Whether it's earth energy, the intersection of ley lines or some other ephemeral blessing ... the land or sense of place appears to matter to artists.

What Are Thin Places? Video of Sacred Sites

Frequently, people ask me what thin places are. Typically I respond, "a thin place is a place where the veil between this world and the eternal world is thin. Here's a video with images of Ireland, that explains the thin places concept.   Consider subscribing to our YouTube Channel so you can be notified when new travel videos appear.

The Celtic harp music in the background is by Anne Roos. The song is Craigieburn Wood from her Light in the Forest collection. I'm grateful to Ann and her publisher for allowing me to use this music in the video.

Video Image Listing
Several have asked so here is a listing of the 33 images in the video in order of appearance.

  • Sliabh na Caillí - This photo was taken from the top of Sliabh na Caillí - or "Hill of the Hag" in County Meath. I was standing just near Loughcrew tombs .. a very thin place
  • Glencolumbkille - County Donegal ... these stones are one of the final stations in the Glencolumbkille pilgrim walk.
  • Gallarus Oratory - Dingle
  • "The sleeping giant" - one of the Blasket Islands off the coast of Dingle
  • Beehive huts - Dingle
  • Ardmore, County Waterford - site of St. Declan's monastic community, the first Christian community in Ireland.
  • Uragh Stone Circle - on the Beara Peninsula, County (the Kingdom of) Kerry
  • Muckross Abbey, county Kerry - cloister walk ruins with giant yew tree in the center.
  • Statue of St. Patrick at Ballintubber Abbey (County Mayo) - marking the beginning of the pilgrim's walk up the holy mountain - Crough Patrick.  The mountain can be faintly seen in the background. 
  • Brandon Bay at the foot of Mount Brandon - Dingle  (Mount Brandon is hidden in the clouds)
  • A view from Mount Brandon - Dingle
  • The Rock of Cashel taken from the Hoare Abbey runis, County Tipperary
  • Dolmen at Carrowmore megalithic burial ground - County Sligo
  • Benbulben - County Sligo
  • Tobar na Molt - "Well of the Wethers" - Inside of the chapel at this site, located in County Kerry near Ardfert.  Believed to be the place where St. Brendan was baptized and where St. Ita is buried.  Holy well outside. is adjacent. 
  • The Well of the Wethers - holy well at Tobar na Molt (pilgrim is kneeling next to the well) - chapel is the stone building
  • Caldragh Cemetery, County Fermanagh - site of two janus figures seen here as the taller stones.  This is both an ancient cemetery and present day cemetery.
  • Tobar Bride - St. Brigid's Holy Well in Kildare.  Pilgrimage site with markings doing prayer "rounds"... near site where St. Brigid founded her monastery.
  • "Clooties" on tree adjacent to St. Brigid's Holy Well in Kildare - tokens of devotion.
  • Signpost for Castleruddery Stone Circle in County Wicklow.  Near Glendalough
  • Stones from the Castleruddery Stone Circle
  • Lia Fáil - or "Stone of Destiny" or Coronation Stone of Tara - Hill of Tara, County Meath.
  • Clonfert Cathedral - site of St. Brendan's monastic community.  St. Brendan is said to be buried outside the church doorway. 
  • Kilmacduagh Monastery ruins in County Galway, near Gort.  Monastery founded by St. Colman (son of Duagh). Famous for its leaning round tower.  A magical place!
  • Knock shrine - County Mayo - More pilgrims travel to this site than any other in Ireland.  Place where Virgin Mary, St. John and St. Joseph appeared to villagers in 1879.  Apparition has been recreated in stone.
  • The "Autograph Tree" at Coole Park, home of Lady Gregory.  Famous literary figures including W. B. Yeats, Bernard Shaw, J.M. Synge and Sean O'Casey carved their names or initials in this copper beach.  The tree still stands.
  • Gougane Barra - smallest church in Ireland - County Cork.  Built on the site of the monastic settlement founded by St. Finbar.  
  • Thoor Ballylee - Castle in County Galway restored and lived in by W. B. Yeats.  It was from this place that Yeats wrote The Tower and many of his later collections.
  • The Burren - meaning "great rock", this place in County Clare is a vast wasteland of rock - very mystical. .. like a moonscape.  Visitors feel compelled to build "cairns" or small towers made of the rock scattered throughout the landscape.  Ancient settlements can still be identified here.
  • Cairns built in the Burren by visitors.  Hundreds of these are scattered across the landscape.
  • Poulnabrone dolmen - ancient tomb in the Burren, tall enough for a man to stand underneath the capstone.
  • Cashelkeelty stone circle, County Kerry - on the Old Green Road running down the Beara Peninsula.  Seeing this circle requires a trek off the main road (about 2 miles). 
  • View from the road up to Mount Brandon.  This rainbow stayed in the sky a full 20 minutes.

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    Croagh Patrick - Climbing the Reek - Part 3

    Guest blogger, Michael Mullen, well-known author in Ireland, presents Part III of his series of posts on Crough Patrick, the Holy Mountain in County Mayo.

    Croagh Patrick is a singular mountain. Above all it is a spiritual place. Set about it are the remains of the Celtic Church. On Inisboffin to the south-west lies the remains on a small monastery. The window frames the great mountain. It was here that Bishop Colman of Lindisfarne came after the his defeat at the Synod of Whitby. He brought with him Irish and English monks. There was a dispute between the two groups, so he left the island with the English group and set up Mayo Abbey. Recent archaeological surveys indicate that Mayo Abbey was as important in its time as Clonmacnoise and that Saxon students were drawn to this place of learning.

    One summer's day I sailed to this island. The waves were calm and a curious seal, well moustached, peered out at us from the tranquil water. We approached the island from the west for there is a small anchorage there, and the small hermitage, with its sacred slabs and crosses, is well protected from the south westerly gales.

    St. Colman - Clare Island and Clew Bay
    It is well called Cathair na Naomh or the enclosure of the saints. Many of the earliest Celtic ornaments are engraved on the slabs standing about the enclosure , particularly the Dolphin slab, which date it to the sixth and early part of the seventh century. Of these decorated stones Professor Herity writes,

    It appears that the hermitages, both on the islands and the desert places of the mainland opposite, are foundations of the earliest centuries of Christianity, a fact demonstrated by the early dates of the cross-slabs. Further, many of these slabs demonstrate surprisingly direct contacts with centers of innovation in Ireland and the continent. Through them we can dimly perceive the presence in the west of early illuminated manuscripts and metalwork crosses which may have served to transmit some of the designs of the cross-carved slabs.

    Saint Patrick's influence was firm and vital. All about the sacred mountain lie early churches, early symbols and early crosses.  How can we catch the Celtic voice of that time? The most immediate voice is that of Saint Patrick's breastplate or Lorcia, which although not written by Saint Patrick catches the mind set of the time. It is a long poem and it is obvious that it is chanted like some incantation against evil. I quote and unfamiliar passage

    I invoke to-day all these virtues
    Against every hostile merciless power
    Which may assail my body and my soul,
    Against the incantations of false prophets,
    Against the black laws of heathenism,
    Against the false laws of heresy,
    Against the deceits of idolatry,
    Against the spells of women, and smiths, and druids,
    Against every knowledge that binds the soul of man.

    It possesses immediately spiritual strength and is the voice of the early church. Croagh Patrick, in a physical manner, dominated the Celtic Church. It possessed a simplicity and an intensity which a more formal church lacks. It possessed a joy and an awakening to a fresh and spiritual view of the world. It is a pastoral world, surrounded by the beauties of nature, where the saints can pray and meditate. It is a world where the natural is so close to the supernatural that the mind moves easily from one to the other.

    Saint Columcille writes,

    How happy the son is of Dima! No sorrow
    For him is designed,
    He is having, this hour, round his own cell in Durrow
    The wish of his mind:
    The sound of the wind in the elms, like the strings of
    A harp being played,
    The note of the blackbird that claps with the wings of
    Delight in the glade.
    With him in Rosgrencha the cattle are lowing
    At earliest dawn,
    On the brink of the summer the pigeons are cooing
    And doves on his lawn.

    For the early Irish church was filled with poetry and music, a delicate delight in nature, a direct relationship with God, unburden by complicated theology. After the death of Saint Patrick, the church flourished. Ireland did become the Island of Saints and scholars, and the three great monuments to this golden period are The Book of Kells; the Ardagh Chalice and Muiredach's Cross at Monasterboice. Thus the great period is marked in vellum, silver and stone, each a masterpiece and each carrying the mystical circles of an earlier age.

    Croagh Patrick then is the sacred mountain, perhaps as sacred now as it was in the early Christian Church. As the twentieth century, reels from materialism and all the wars which have ravaged the century, the Holocaust and the local wars and the soul looks for some definition, it will find it in high and thin places, remote and awesome. That is why pilgrims, sometimes in bare feet, make their way along the path worn out by the footsteps of their ancestors.
    Doo Lough - County Mayo

    This great mountain has dominated my life. I know it in all its moods. On a summer day it stands sharp and pristine against a blue sky. It shimmers like some Greek mountain upon which the gods take residence. It dominates the landscape with its imposing presence and the eye is drawn towards its and the mind is called towards its summit. In autumn, as the strength of the sun wanes, it carries deeper colors. In winter, it is the first mountain to bear a cap of snow and then it is almost inaccessible and private. Springs brings a renewal and the beginning of pilgrimage.

    It is a mountain of many moods. On wet and on windy days is becomes opaque. When the mists roll in from the sea it is shrouded and inaccessible and dangerous to attempt the summit. It becomes a private and introspective place. When luminous clouds pass above it, it carries their shapes across its surface. When the sun shines firmly on its surfaces, it is light purple and in the hollows dark purple. It fits all our human moods the variety of our spiritual desires.

    The grey path, etched by pilgrim feet draw the pilgrim towards the summit.

    One night as a young man, I set off for the summit with the pilgrims in July. I joined the human chain which stretched from the base at Murrisk to the top of the mountain. The pilgrims were funneled on to the path at Owen Campbell's pub and we began the arduous ascent. At this level some small bushes and shrubs gains sustenance from the boggy soil, but soon the trace of vegetation, falls away. Moss and rough grass is barely sustained on the lower limits.

    The path is tortuous and uneven. Rough stones break the surface and pilgrims sometimes balance precariously on the rocks. The accents are familiar and they mingle together. Small groups call out the rosary as they move up the slope. Others, with pilgrim staffs, search for purchase. Some walk on bare feet. The young push optimistically up the slope, those who are older plod onwards. The level land has fallen away and small lights on the flatlands mark individual habitations, clusters of lights mark the towns and the light house at the eastern end of the bay, flashes out its warning beam.

    Now I join a human river of feeling. A sense of individuality falls away and I become part of a spiritual process, part of something which has gone on for a long time. There are no words to define the change within or the link I feel with all those bound to the surface of the mountain and to all the pilgrims who have taken this track for more years than the archaeologists can ascertain. 

    On the lower summit, it grows lonely and the pilgrims bend their backs towards the slope . There is greater silence now. On the hip of the mountain there is a small respite. The path runs level. It is time to prepare for the final ascent.  The winds curve up the mountain from the south. Even on a summer night their is wind on the mountain. It grows colder and the mind grows bleak.  There is no icon or image to sustain one on the final push. At this point the  mountain slope rises sharply. It is covered by shards of rock, which run beneath the pilgrims feet. One bends forward and clings to the mountain. Nothing is easy now and the darkness does not reveal the summit.

    Those returning call out words of encouragement. Finally there is a small tilt and the going gets easy. A few more meters brings the pilgrim to the summit.  I had reached the highest level. A great circle of people bound closely together in a human wheel moved about the church calling out the pilgrims prayers, their voices raised in petition. I join the pilgrims, individuality shed.

    I had reached the platform on the mountain. Here Patrick had lived and slept for forty days. On this spot he has tussled with demons and deepened his spirituality. In this bleak place he could come to terms with himself and his mission. No one is unmoved on this platform on the very edge of Europe and while the comfort is cold, the weather variable and the body weary the spirit takes heart. One looks evenly on life and eternity, at the ephemeral and that which is profound and fecund. The better part of ones nature is freed for a time and from time, soars for a shot time on the back of an eagle's wings.

    You come face to face with your better nature and that is a frightening thing. Who wishes to look into the clear face of God particularly a sin sodden soul like myself. But these are moments or epiphanies when light flashes within the mind, when the spirits is illuminated and charged. It happened to Paul in a dramatic fashion on the way to Damascus and quietly to Augustine at Ostia, and surprisingly to Aquinas at the very end of his days, when the most rational of men had a mystical vision.

    I had none of these experiences on Croagh Patrick, but I did climb up out of a normal habitat and a normal world until I could climb no further. I stood close to a thin place, a place of white light before it is fragmented into weaker color. There is no need for voice or complexity on this platform, for that splinters vision.

    That was a long time ago and I need to return to this place again. I need to climb out of existence, its speed, its vast communication network, its cynical propaganda, its Babel of voices and particularly the Babel of philosophers who eschew wisdom which is damn tiresome and a thin pabulum for my soul. I will never cross over to the other side as the mystics have done for like Sancha Panza I ride upon a mule and I never had the idealism to tilt at a windmill.

    As I recall the first experience, I remember how the dawn broke uncertainly in the east, then how the sky was suffused with light, how the landscape and seascape took dark form and then final form. The great bay lay beneath me, the drumlin islands, en échelon, as the geologists say. They set the direction from which the great glaciers came and point in the direction towards which they departed. A cairn of rounded stones lie about each island base. They say that there is an island in the bay for every year, but I have never counted them and I do not know if it is true. To the north lay the mountains of Mayo, to the south the Skeffrey hills and in a line west Ahagower where Saint Patrick celebrated Easter.

    The descent from the mountain was rapid. The scree ran before us and soon we were on the saddle, then we took the broader path towards Murrisk. I was secure on the flat lands, safe in its intimate beauty. Every pilgrim had been moved in some way by the mountain. The physical challenge alone has its own value, the spiritual challenge is profound and not easily described. But it is deeply felt and sets deep roots.

    I have traveled in many places since then. I have stood on the plateau of Massada and looked across the Dead Sea towards Moab, walked across Red Square and looked at the waxen face of Lenin, lay upon my back and studied the Sistine chapel, visited Tsarkoe Selo and prayed in the small chapel frequented by the Romanov family, before they were transported to Siberia and execution. I witnessed the White nights of Saint Petersburg and sailed upon the Sea of Galilee. I prayed at the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem and took a bus to Bethlehem. But I have never been in a thin place comparable to Croagh Patrick, where there was no image and no icon, little comfort and dawn a toss away. What happened there was profound and silent and I could never catch it in the net of words.

    If you cross the road at Owen Campbell's pub and continue the path to the sea you will come upon one of my favorite places, Murrisk Abbey. I will neither describe its architecture, its history or its topography. It was founded in 1457 and its function failed somewhere at the beginning of the nineteenth century.

    In 1730 Father William Bourke was transferred from the abbey and sent inland. He expresses the sadness of departure in this Irish poem which I translate freely.

    Fare well to you Murrisk,
    A most pleasant , most joyful place.
    Farewell to the to the honey bearing mountains,
    South of the Reek.
    Most glorious to me
    Was the oyster catcher wading on the sea margin
    More glorious than the fairy music of the world.
    -all the fairy music of the world.
    Now when I rise in the morning
    I see in the distance the Reek,
    My heart within is in frenzy
    And my mind burdened.
    I am not accustomed to these inland people
    They are not pleasant and lack joy.
    They are images cut from a green oak
    With an axe.
    If I can endure this place
    Until the cuckoo speaks
    I will then return home
    And visit my favored place.
    Were it not for the submission and respect
    I always have held for the order,
    I would never have abandoned Murrisk
    And the beauty of its harbors.
    There is little more to say. The rest is monastic silence.

    St. Patrick and His Holy Mountain - Part I by Michael Mullen
    St. Patrick and His Holy Mountain  Part II  by Michael Mullen

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    Guest author today is Michael Mullen of Castlebar, County Mayo. Michael is a well known Irish writer of Children's Literature, Historical Fiction and many works written in Gaeilge, the Irish native language. This is the final entry of a three part series of posts on St. Patrick and his holy mountain known as Croagh Patrick.

    Text Copyright 2001, 2011 by Michael Mullen. All Rights Reserved. Used with permission.

    Richard Rohr - The Celts Didn't Invent Thin Places

    Janus figure - Caldragh Cemetery, Boa Island
    Richard Rohr is a Franciscan priest, author, speaker and spiritual leader I have long followed and respected. His insights into spirituality, prayer and contemplation are some of the best in today's world of faith leaders. However, his post, Life on the Edge: Understanding the Prophetic Position in the Huffington Post today disappoints me. He relates living on the "spiritual edge" as living in a thin place.

    The post points out that thresholds, doorways, bridges and other entryways, have long been linked to guardians or helpers appointed to assist with crossing over. He then links the same concept to spiritual thresholds and calls them thin places.

    I don't mind if he wants to use "thin place" as his personal, spiritual term for a threshold to a spiritual state state of contemplation.

    However, in his post, Fr. Rohr links the term "thin places" to the the Celts. He states, "The edge is a holy place, or as the Celts called it, "a thin place" and you have to be taught how to live there."

    The Celts were a culture of people that arrived in Ireland after 500 BC. The idea of thin places or doorways to the Otherworld were solidly a part of the Irish culture long before the Celts came. Newgrange passage tomb is 5200 years old and has entrance stones with large spirals carved into the surface, common symbols for the pre-Christian Irish - and linked to their concept of thin places.

    Drombeg and other stone circles in Ireland date 800 - 1200 BC.  Tombs on the Hill of Tara date back to 3000 BC. The Poulnabrone dolmen in the Burren dates back 5000 years.  We know that sects of the pre-Christian Irish believed there was another world - and Underworld where a parallel civilization (often linked to enchantments) lived. They believed there were openings where the inhabitants of the other world came and went between worlds - thin places. Legends of fairy forts or nodes where passage between worlds was possible were known as thin places or enchanted places.

    The Hill of Uisneach was believed to be a thin place, not so much because of its being an opening for passing between worlds, but for the strong energy that comes to the through the earth from below - supernatural power that humans could draw from.

    The thin places concept was a part of the pre-Christian or pagan charism and these beliefs or sensitivities - existed prior to the Celts.  The concept is rejected by many of the present day Christian communities, often being linked to "new age" heathenism.

    Fr. Rohr also writes, "To take your position on the spiritual edge of things is to learn how to move safely in and out, back and forth, across and return. It is a prophetic position..." He uses this phrase not to relate that the place where you physically stand (on the edge) puts you in a prophetic position.  He's writing about something ephemeral or of the consciousness or mind. The physical place doesn't appear to have any significance in his definition.

    These pre-Christian Irish people believed the thin place itself had the mystical or spiritual power. One didn't create a thin place simply by moving into a state of contemplation or spiritual trance. The site itself was thin and that made spiritual contemplation more powerful.

    I have no issue with people who want to give their own definitions to the term thin place.  But I find it frustrating when writers recreate the pre-Christian Irish definition to suit whatever spiritual premise they happen to be writing about.

    Considering Fr. Rohr is a scholar and has traveled much of the world, his "thin places" reference in this post appears to be reaching .... and sounds trite and sappy. It seems to be a feeble support to a lofty, contemplative concept.

    Croagh Patrick - Climbing the Reek Part 2

    This is the second of a three part series of posts on St. Patrick and his holy mountain known as Croagh Patrick written by Irish author, Michael Mullen.  Read first post in the series - St. Patrick and His Holy Mountain.

    If one studies the movement of the sun On 18th of April and 24 August the setting sun rests on the summit of the mountain and then slides down the northern flank. So perhaps the mountain marked the movement of the sun across the heavens. How many other markings lie about the county aligned with this sacred mountain? To ascribe a low intelligence to our ancestors a lack of a deep religious instinct to diminish both them and us. The story of Saint Patrick has been well and often told. It is pivotal to the story of the Mountain. The outline of the story is familiar. As Daphne C. Pochin Mould says in her books The Irish Saints.

    Patrick, apostle of Ireland, head of the belief of the Gaels, as he is styled in the Martyrology of Gormon, is a person of whom we know, as it were, everything and nothing.

    He is the author to two works -his Confessions and Letter to the Soldiers of Coroticus. The Lorica or Breastplate of Saint Patrick, once attributed to him, is believed to be of later provenance. But let us see what is firmly established about the man.

    St. Patrick the man
    We cannot give a date for his birth but it is believed that he died in 493 and is buried in Armagh. He was born near the west coast of Roman Britain and was given the name Succat. His people were Christian and his father an official of some importance. He was taken captive by Irish raiders and brought to Ireland where he was sold to a pig farmer. Many associate him with Co. Antrim but there is equally strong evidence that he served out his time in County Mayo, perhaps in North Mayo. He spent six years herding swine on a mountain. In fact he must have been attracted to the loneliness of mountains. While herding swine he became prayerful.

    So he became familiar with the solitude of the Irish hillsides and the Irish woods. He learned the Irish tongue and through his master Milchu, he became familiar with the rituals of Druidism. One the mountain of Slemish he was visited by visions and in one he was instructed to escape. There is a tradition that made his way to Mayo and sailed out of Clew Bay. He was taken aboard a the ship which carried Irish wolfhounds. If he did then one of the last things he saw as the coast receded was the great mountain of quartzite. His journey was eventful. They were shipwrecked and traveled through a strange and desolate landscape.

    He gives us the following tentative information concerning his life.

    I am Patrick, a sinner, most unlearned, the least of all the faithful, and utterly despised by many. My father was Calpornius, a deacon, son of Potitus, of the village of Bannaven Tuburniae; he had a country seat nearby and there I was taken captive. I was then about sixteen years of age. I did not know the true God. I was taken into captivity to Ireland with many thousands of people..

    And I used to get up for prayer before daylight, through snow, through frost, through rain, and I felt no harm, and there was no sloth in me-as I now see, because the spirit within me was then fervent.

    Eventually he reached home and would have stayed contentedly with his own people but he head the voice of the Irish, close to the Wood of Voclut near the Western Sea, which called him to come and walk with them. Had he been more accurate and was he familiar with modern autobiography we would have a much clearer knowledge of his life. Wishing to become a priest he went Saint Martin's Monastery at Tours, and again to the island sanctuary of Léirns. It is obvious from the life of Saint Germain that Patrick was a capable and suitable candidate to send to Ireland to convert the Irish. Others had failed. He arrived with a retinue of people knew exactly what he was about. He must have been familiar with the landscape of Ireland and the centre of power and culture. Contrary to the law of the high king he lit a Pascal fire on Slane hill, a hill within view of Tara. With that gesture he challenged the druidical power.

    The following words are ascribed to the druids although there is no historical proof for this event as the Pascal fire goes back to the 8th century.

    O King live for ever; this fire, which has been lighted in defiance of the royal edict, will blaze for ever in this land unless it be this very night extinguished.

    So he took on their power of fire with the Pascal fire. It was a symbol of what was to come. With fire he dealt with fire. This was an affirmation and a moment which marks the firm beginning of conversion.  His life as a missionary was not an easy one. In fact it was dangerous. He writes of "twelve dangers in which my life was at stake-not to mention numerous plots." This phrase alone opens up a whole field of speculation.  What were the dangers and who were his enemies? No doubt he was engaged in a power struggle with kings and druids. He lived dangerously and his mind was singularly determined.

    St. Patrick's Pilgrimage to Croagh Patrick
    During all his travels and visitations he came to Croagh Patrick. He traveled to Aughagower in 440. He would have journey along the ancient path from Cruchan. Aughagower was an important location and the seat of a chieftain. When Patrick arrived he came with his house hold. We have a list in the life of Saint Patrick written in the seventh century by Tírechán. He arrived with his bishop, his priest, his judge, his chaplain, his psalmist, his chamberlain, his bell-ringer, his cook, his brewer, his charioteer, his masons, his woodsman, his cowherd and many others.

    In other words he was equal to any chieftain. He was also well organized. Most likely he built a church there and set about appointing bishops. As he looked west he would note the high, quartzite cone of Mount Eagle as it was then known. He would have been curious about the mountain and known its importance to the ancient Irish. Here too he would leave the Christian mark, as he had left it on standing stones and in other places sacred to the druids.

    And so he set out to climb Mons Aigli, the Mountain of the eagle, as it was then called. He passed along the path, worn by other visitors. As he mounted the minor flanks he would observe the breathtaking scenery about him; towards the south the Sheffery hills running directly towards Killery harbour; to the north, the lone shape of Neiphin Mountain and the mountains of Mayo. As he reached the base of the central cone, the myriad islands in Clew bay, with their humped backs would become more distinct.

    Now the path rises steeply, and small, flinty rocks, sharp and jagged would have slipped beneath his feet as he arched forward and clung to the steep mountain. Finally he reached the summit, with its slight, platform. Now he could see the bulk of Clare island, stout and firm at the opening to the bay. Beyond that lay an unknown world, which Saint Brendan would later navigate. He would have looked all around him and observed every interesting, outcrop of rock and mountain. He stood above his kingdom. Indeed this moment was a watershed for the Celtic Church.

    It is said that he remained on the mountain for forty days. He would have no doubt remembered the visit of Moses to Mount Sinai. It was on such a high pinnacle that Moses received and formulated the ten commandments He could also have been preparing for Easter and the Resurrection. But it was a remote time for him, a time for prayer and reflection and Saint Patrick and a period when he could be removed from the sea of trouble which washed around the base of the mountain. It was this time period which gives the mountain its vast spiritual significance and it is here that the old ends and the new begins. The pagan pilgrimage path would become a Christian pilgrimage path and the stone buildings on the mountain be supplanted by an oratory.

    Excavations of Croagh Patrick
    Recently excavations have discovered an oratory, not unlike the stone oratory at Gallaraus, which was made of dry stone, and shaped like the centre of an upturned boat.  This is the moment of silence and reflection and since then every pilgrim has been drawn to the mountain by the same spiritual instinct. They say that he banished the snakes, but there never were snakes in Ireland. That he banished demons in another thing; the demons were the demons of paganism.

    In the Tripartite Life of Saint Patrick the following strange image occurs.

    Now at the end of those forty days and forty nights the mountain was filled with black birds, so that he knew not heaven nor earth. He strikes his bell at them, so that the men of Ireland heard its voice and he flung it at them, so that its gap broke out of it ... no demon came to the land of Erin after that.
    Croagh Patrick - a thin place
    A precipice to the south side of the mountain is known as the Hollow of the Demons. This makes Croagh Patrick relevant on many levels and it is the core reason why pilgrims have been drawn to the summit for seventeen hundred years.

    Croagh Patrick with Famine Ship

    On this arid summit, where the winds blow hard, where no root takes hold, where distance seems infinite and heaven close, the spirit is tested and replenished, for the pilgrim had reached a thin place, where one steps into the highest dimension of one's existence.

    The deserts of Egypt drew the early fathers to is dry expanses. The summit of the mountain is a hard desert where only the spirit can flourish, where the ground is covered with sharp rocks, where the back drops to ordinary life are removed. It is here that the human spirit passes from the comfortable world into a spiritual world. That is why it is a significant place.

    On this singular mountain, forty days before Easter, where Patrick faced came face to face with himself, perhaps where he was tested by temptation and visited with visions. It is from these forty days, or period of silence, prayer and penitence that Mount Aglie derives part of its intense spiritual energy and which set standards for the early Celtic Church. It became a symbol of Ireland's enduring faith.

    St. Patrick after Croagh Patrick mission
    Having finished this, the most intense spiritual period of his life, Patrick descended along the pilgrim path, energized and refreshed. He walked to Aghagower to his friend, Senach the bishop and Mathone the Nun and celebrated the Easter festival with them. This was a decisive moment for Saint Patrick and the early Christian church. It happened in the year 441.

    Patrick had twenty more years of missionary activity. He developed a native clergy, fostered the growth of monasticism, established diocese, and held church councils. He was a man of action who lived a vigorous life, who intellectual ability and honesty had been questioned, whose suitability to the priesthood had been challenged and who had lead a life of hardship and danger. When he died his body was interred in Armagh.

    Croagh Patrick is a singular mountain. Above all it is a spiritual place. Set about it are the remains of the Celtic Church. On Inisboffin to the south-west lies the remains on a small monastery. The window frames the great mountain. It was here that Bishop Colman of Lindisfarne came after the his defeat at the Synod of Whitby. He brought with him Irish and English monks. There was a dispute between the two groups, so he left the island with the English group and set up Mayo Abbey. Recent archaeological surveys indicate that Mayo Abbey was as important in its time as Clonmacnoise and that Saxon students were drawn to this place of learning.

    Watch this blog for St. Patrick and His Holy Mountain - Part III
    Read first post in the series - St. Patrick and His Holy Mountain.

    Guest author today is Michael Mullen of Castlebar, County Mayo. Michael is a well known Irish writer of Children's Literature, Historical Fiction and many works written in Gaeilge, the Irish native language

    Text Copyright 2001, 2011 by Michael Mullen. All Rights Reserved. Used with permission.

    Two St. Patrick's - Armagh - Twin Symbols of Conflict and Unity

    St. Patrick's Cathedral - Armagh - Roman Catholic
    Coming into Armagh from the Monaghan Road one gets a dramatic view of the city skyline, especially at twilight. The view is dominated by two buildings on two hills - St. Patrick's Cathedral and St. Patrick's Cathedral.

    Both are diocesan bishoprics, both built on holy ground and both tied to legends of St. Patrick. One is the Church of Ireland cathedral built on the ancient holy site where St. Patrick is believed to have built his first stone church in the 5th century. The other is a stunning Gothic-style Roman Catholic Cathedral, its cornerstone laid on St. Patrick's Day 1840. It was completed in the early 20th century, with a serious halt to the construction during the Great Hunger.

    St Patrick's Cathedral - Armagh - Church of Ireland

    One view of that skyline speaks volumes. The twin pinnacles of the city bolstering two similar houses of worship whose congregations have withstood centuries of conflict and division. Some say they mirror the ancient story of the twins of Macha, birthed after an exhausting (and pointless) race. She cursed the land as her revenge.

    My first entry into Northern Ireland through Armagh in April of 1998.  just a week after the signing of the Good Friday Agreement.  I didn't know much about the conflict except for what I acquired listening to Irish ballads.  I always wanted to see that movie with Daniel Day Lewis about the Northern Irish Catholic father and son, but never managed to get my hands on copy.  I knew our relatives were from Derry, and  we were a part of this genetic landscape.  I had great interest in the culture, people and places here, but had little information. I entered Northern Ireland full of curiosity.

    We checked into Padua House Bed and Breakfast, run by Kathleen O'Hagan.  It's a brownstone, townhouse located on the main road at the base of St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Cathedral.  Kathleen was (and is) one of the most hospitable hosts I've encountered in all my travels.  Her home was simple and warm as was her sense of hospitality.

    Notice the Details.  Mark the Coincidences.  Chart Synchronicity 

    If we are to grow spiritually from travel, noticing coincidences is part of the learning. I keep a log when I travel and jot down events, feelings and coincidences.  Synchronicity is the language of the spirit.  It's when unrelated events seem to come together in a common purpose that we know we are touching the otherworld.  The events may not speak to us until long after the journey is over.  Tracing the path in words and recollections can reveal wonders later.

    Here's an excerpt from my travel log written the first night in Armagh.  

    April 19, 1998 - 11pm ~ Armagh
    I write from a bedroom located in Padua House, a B&B in downtown Armagh. I am lying on a bed in front of a large window. I was startled when I pulled back the drapes. Consuming every inch of the glass is a spectacular view of St. Patrick’s Cathedral (Catholic) - a prominent sight in the Armagh skyline. If I turn off the incandescent light in my room I can still write by the lights coming off the Cathedral - and when I look up, I'm  consumed by the awe of those twin spires and that Gothic face.

    Three blocks from the Catholic Cathedral, skyline is the CI Cathedral, also named St. Patrick’s. It was from that hill that St. Patrick himself led the Irish Church in 5th century, and became noted for being one of the only leaders in history to spread Christianity throughout a nation without inflicting or creating bloodshed in the process. The bodies of Brian Boru and his eldest son rest in the ground here, noted by a plaque on the Cathedral wall.

    The Armagh skyline with these two holy places climbing out of the landscape speaks volumes about the Irish people. Two separate groups reaching for the same prize, claiming the same name, but can't seem to reach each other. 

    Coincidences and events - 

    • I'm arriving in Northern Ireland for the first time one week after the Good Friday Agreement was reached - a turning point in deescalation of violence between Catholics and Protestants.  Also one week to the day from Easter Sunday.
    • I am staying at Padua House named for my close spiritual friend [Anthony of Padua] - a patron of the owner as well.
    • My room has is the smallest in the house, but has the magnificent view of the Cathedral and is the only room in the house with a view of the Cathedral. No one appreciates the view of a holy place like me.
    • Mrs. O’Hagan served us tea before we retired to our rooms. Larry and Sheila [my traveling companions] were exhausted but I was wound up. I was invited  to watch television with the family and we watched In the Name of the Father, a film about the troubles in Northern Ireland.  Seeing this movie with a Northern Ireland family  who had their house - Padua House - destroyed by a bomb was strange - but strangley meaningful. 
    • Just as I conclude writing these coincidences and events, the cathedral bells begin to chime marking the midnight hour.

    What wonderful gifts .... Mrs. O’Hagan, Pauda House, In the Name of the Father, the view of the Cathedral, the sound of the bells.

    This moment stands still in time. I figure I'll always remember it. Who knows for what?

    The next day we saw the occupying forces crouching in doorways, carrying machine guns as they lingered in Portadown and Armagh. Ornate graffiti with militant images, razor wire around buildings, and IRA signage was a eerie shift from the loud tourist welcome we experienced in the Republic [of Ireland].  But I loved that visit to the north.  I never felt unsafe.  I knew the anger was not with tourists.  My travel log entry from that day was more vivid than my memory.

    April 20, 1998 - 9 pm
    At breakfast, Mrs. O’Hagan shared the story of how her house was destroyed. Someone planted a car bomb outside her house and when it exploded she and her family were in the back yard. The windows were all blown out, the fireplaces destroyed. All wiring and lighting fixtures, and windows had to be replaced and the walls re-plastered. The bomb was a random act, not intended for anyone in particular. One of her grandchildren was sleeping near the stairwell, and while he was not hurt badly, he was terrified and covered with glass. They found the front window curtains in the back yard. Insurance covered none of the cost of restoration.
    Mrs O'Hagan said there was a nice brick mason who came in to rebuild her fireplaces and chimneys and commented, “Pity, the poor man was shot and killed by a British soldier just weeks after he finished the work.” I asked why he was shot...was he a member of the IRA or targeted because of political ties. She replied “No. He was just a Catholic.” She then went on to say, "Everyone here has been touched by the Troubles.”

    We went up the hill to attend 10:00 mass at St. Patrick’s Cathedral. The Cathedral is magnificent! It's the combination of the ancient and the modern all woven into a masterpiece that stirs the spirit and proclaims the greatness of God. I had two thoughts as I walked through. One - all the saints depicted are Irish, most with names I've never heard. It seems that the Irish are so into being Irish. Would a Cathedral in France or Spain or Italy only depict native saints? Does any country have this many saints? Two - not one square inch of this massive structure is blank or vacant. It is all covered with art. Even the paint on the walls is covered with Celtic designs. And all the art means something or is remembering something or someone. It’s almost impossible to take in that much meaning...

    …On our way to Lurgan we went through Portadown. The British forces in uniform stood with grease paint on their faces and machine guns prepared for use. Their tanks blocked a section of the street. We ate lunch here and again experienced the cold apprehension of the people of the North. Two days after our visit here, a Catholic cab driver (father of 5) was gunned down randomly in a parking lot.

    Armagh - a City Transformed

    Since that visit thirteen years ago, a generation has come of age in Northern Ireland, and the people there have achieved success in mending divisions and unifying communities.  It's a safe and comfortable place, still with differences, but tempered by common purposes. All in the North I've spoken to admit to wanting more united communities and less focus on differences. Tourism has flourished, the apprehensive facades have fallen away and been replaced by enthusiasm.  Economic growth and a regional pride in one common heritage have laid a foundation for the visitor to have rich, meaningful, fun experiences.

    One quality I love about the North is that tourism has not (yet) overwhelmed the country as it has in parts of the Republic. One can still visit "old Ireland" and connect with people that carry qualities of the ancient, mystical culture. Many of the rural landscapes seem more pristine, and less interrupted by development. I encourage all to visit Armagh and all parts of the North.

    Visit Armgah's Thin Places
    Both St. Patrick's Cathedrals in Armagh are rich in history and art and worth an hour visit each. Nearby are some remarkable thin places including Killevy, Emhain Macha, Slieve Gullion passage tomb, Clontygorra, and Kilnasaggart. The Ballykeel dolmen is also worth visiting and is very near Killevy.

    Related Posts - Padua House and Kathleen O'Hagan of Armagh

    Croagh Patrick - Climbing the Reek Part 1

    Guest author today is Michael Mullen of Castlebar, County Mayo. Michael is well known in Ireland as writer of Children's Literature, Historical Fiction and works in Gaeilge, the Irish native language. This post is the first of a series of three posts on the holy mountain, Croagh Patrick, and ancient mystical site where St. Patrick is said to have spent 40 days in contemplation.

    Croagh Patrick - a Thin Place
    Christian and pagan, this is a sacred mountain. Set at the western edge of Europe and standing above Clew Bay, it dominates the landscape and the sea scape. Its spine is franked with a gray path, traced out by pilgrim feet, for pilgrims have made their way to the summit of this majestic mountain for many thousands of years.
    It is the quartz core of a much larger mountain, but time, and weather have worn it down and polished it into a pyramid. At its northern base, scree, lies about it, a testimony to the wear and tear upon ancient things.

    Each day of year some pilgrim makes his her way to the sacred summit. Sometimes only a few pilgrims are strung out on the mountain path but during the great festivals, it becomes a living path. Day and night they come and go along the tortuous path, each linked together by some sacred purpose. On the important nights it is a river of living light. This has gone on for two millennia, perhaps three, and it will continue while the mountain holds and that will take it to the rim of forever.

    Croagh Patrick - "It is a singular place, set in a primitive landscape, lonely and challenging"
    For on this high and remote place one is close to the gate of heaven, close to the early Christian spirit and perhaps close to ones best aspirations. It is a singular place, set in a primitive landscape, lonely and challenging, like the sharp pinnacles of Schelig Mhicil in Kerry or Mont San Michel of the coast of France

    Croagh Patrick - a thin place
    The mystical and the pilgrim parts of our nature are attracted to such places. It is as natural as the air we breathe. In fact the first poem in Irish literature, written by Amergin has the following strange lines. It was composed well over two thousand years ago and possesses a haunting, magical quality. The poet stands at a point where he is in a thin place and passing towards some magical or spiritual plain.

    I am the god who creates in the head of man the fire of thought. 
Who is it who throws light into the meeting on the mountain?

    These lines have the ring of spirituality. They represent something profound, and when Saint Patrick arrived in Ireland on his mission he knew something of the ancient rituals and the mind set of the druids and the kings. He was Roman and Celt and this gave him a singular advantage in his missionary work. He imposed a new spirituality on an old spirituality and there is a continuum in the thought patterns between the pagan and the Christian mind. On many of the pagan symbols he and his followers cut the firm cross of Christ. Perhaps we could say that the ancient Irish possessed minds that were naturally Christian.

    The beginning of Tóchar Phádraig
    at Ballintubber Abbey

    St. Patrick imposed a new spirituality on an old spirituality
    In recent years, through archaeology and historical research, our fragments of knowledge concerning this singular mountain are taking a more definite shape. The mountain is being restored to its important place in our archaeology, history, spirituality and culture.

    The mountain is singular in its presence, not unlike the great central arch of a Gothic cathedral, supported by two lesser arches. It is clean cut against the sky and arrests the eye. No other mountain creates such an impression except perhaps Knocknarea in County Sligo, with its great megalithic cairn of stones. Knocknarea is set above Sligo bay and has a seminal influence on the poet W. B. Yeats.

    What Jacqueline O Brien and Peter Harbison say of Knocknarea in their book Ancient Ireland is applicable to Croagh Patrick.

    Strong religious beliefs and social circumstances must have motivated the creation of the eleven meter high megalithic monument on top of Knocnarea in County Sligo- and undertaking as difficult to achieve as trying to work out how many Stone Age man hours went into its undertaking.

    This gives us a method of reading the sacred history of Croagh Patrick, for as I said it has always been sacred. It gives us also a method of reading ancient and Celtic spirituality, for the Irish Church was different to the Roman Church and this created much controversy at the time; many assemblies, many arguments and defeat in the end for the Irish. It came to a head at the Whiteby.

    The Ancient History of the Mountain
    One must place the Mountain in its archaeological context for it is part of the archaeological remains which stand on the mountain side and lie about the base and stretch far into the surrounding country. Man and women has left their mark upon the landscape from the very beginning. The date of the arrival of the first settlers in Mayo cannot be ascertained definitely, but we can say with some certainly that the arrived some seven and a half thousand years ago. They were Stone Age people and they were a highly organized and religious people.

    We know this from the excavations at the Céide fields in North Mayo. Here Doctor Seamus Caulfield discovered a civilization beneath a vast blanket bog. It is all quite exciting how this discovery was made. For many years turf cutters had encountered wall places beneath the bogs. This argued that prior to the growth of the bog cover a system of fields had been built. Though archaeological excavations it was discovered that an extensive filed pattern covering some thousand acres lay beneath the blanket of bog. So a highly organized society lived here many thousands of years ago. It is the beginning of archaeology.

    Linked to these fields were huge burial tombs, with their great orthostats, their stone caps and their orientation towards the east, the source of light. We can argue from the presence of these Iron age monuments that these first settlers followed rituals that we no longer understand, but they were the rituals of life and death; rituals that must have been related to the seasons and the harvests. They were a reasonable and intelligent people and the great and mysterious monument, Newgrange was built a thousand years before the pyramids. It remains a mathematical and mysterious puzzle. The markings the tomb have never been deciphered, but the building is linked to the movements of the sun and the stars.

    Ancient Meanings Linked to Today
    All this is central to the importance of Croagh Patrick. If ritual was part of the old world then there is no doubt that ritual was central to their great quartzite mountain. The path which the pilgrims take is very ancient and stretches far back into history and right to the centre of Ireland. The ancient route from Cruachan, to the summit of Croagh Patrick, is now call Tóchar Phádraig, which in translation means Patrick's Causeway. It led, we believe along a road which stretches from Roscommon to Mayo. Today this route is marked out by ruined churches, abbeys and settlements. Thus, we establish the first tentative link with the sacred mountain on the very edge of the Atlantic. We are more definite when we take up the pilgrim route at Ballintubber Abbey. A pilgrim can now take the route from the famous Abbey and travel through Aghagower on the way to Croagh Patrick. One is almost certain that this was Saint Patrick's route to the sacred mountain.

    It is only now that we are coming to understand the great monuments of the ancient world; the pyramids of Egypt, Stonehenge, the Mexican temples, Newgrange, the ziggurats of Mesopotamia and many others. The were more than massive monuments, requiring great engineering skills. They were solar temples, celestial observation points, centers were the rhythm of the seasons and the passage of stars across the heavens were computed. Croagh Patrick seems to be locked into some understanding of the movements of the sun. There is a remarkable rock outcrop decorated with Prehistoric Art.

    Watch this blog for St. Patrick and His Holy Mountain - Part II and Part III
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    Text Copyright 2001, 2011 by Michael Mullen. All Rights Reserved. Used with permission.

    Thin Places - Energy Lines and Earth Openings

    Carrowmore - County Sligo
    A few weeks ago a friend of mine from the UK (who also happens to be a medium) offered me amazing insight into the thin places concept.  Annie told me that there are veins or channels of energy that surge through the earth beneath its surface.  There are also little "nodes" or areas where this energy pushes through.

    These piercings of energy through the earth's surface offer immense spiritual power to those that are tuned into it.  Ancient people knew this and gravitated to these places where the energy was the strongest.  They  buried their dead, practiced spiritual rituals, built temples, charted the seasons, and left behind architectural wonders that have us smart people still baffled today about how they managed it all.

    We can see remnants of sacred gathering places, especially in the UK and Ireland, where old stone ruins still consecrate the landscape with their faithful benediction.  They offer inspiration to the traveler who can only glance in awe while passing by, and silently call out to the seekers hungry for a taste of the eternal world.

    Annie added that catastrophic events like war generate intense bad energy.  The human anger, rage and violence brought forth in battle mingles with the earth's energy and contaminates it.  Certain areas can be marked for centuries by the bad "karma" left from such a short concentration of ugliness.

    And there's more ...

    That same defiled energy can reenter the node and be absorbed in the veins of energy that surge through the earth.  The earth carries that darkness to other nodes.  It spreads.

    The converse is also true.  Love, joy, happiness also affects the energy and it, too spreads.

    Annie said that she lives near a node, and there was once a terrible battle there.  Many churches have sprung up in the area, and there seems to be a high concentration of people in the region who have healing powers.  It's almost as if the wounded part of the earth is calling spiritual healers to itself.

    Because of the wound ... that region of the earth becomes a magnet for healers.

    The theory mirrors much of what we hear today about healing, energy and alternative health practices.  The Reiki movement and acupuncture follow this tradition.

    Visiting a thin place could be good for both the body and soul, if one is tuned in.

    Thin Places Tour - May 15 - 24th

    View from Mount Brandon - Dingle

    In May of 2011 I will be escorting a group of travelers to Ireland to visit some thin places. Our travels will include the Newgrange passage tombs, followed by a house party in Dublin. The next day we'll be off to Kildare to visit the old town and cathedral as well as St. Brigid's holy well.  From there we'll travel Holy Cross Abbey where there is said to be a relic of the true cross.  Then onto the Rock Cashel, one of Ireland's most thin places and Athassel Priory ruins at twilight (very mystical site).  After a night in Cashel town we'll move on to  Ardmore, a beautiful seaside town where St. Declan founded his monastery, then onto Cork city where the group will have a free day and be able to relax or take optional tours that inlcude Cobh, Kinsale and St. Gobnaits Holy Well.

    After two nights in Cork we'll pass by Timoleague, Drombeg Stone Circle and Skibbereen, finally arriving in the Medieval city - Kenmare.  The next day we'll explore the Beara peninsula and its stone circle, seaside views, mountain trails and mystical southern tip where Dursey Island accessed only by boat or cable car.  Then on to Gouganne Barre, the smallest church in Ireland, sent in a valley on a site where St. Finbar once founded a monastery (one of the most scenic places in Ireland). After traveling through Gap of Dunloe, we'll arrive in the most mystical place of all - Dingle.  One free day will allow for relaxation and exploring and we'll end the trip with a farewell party.  

    Please consider joining us.  It will be one of the most memorable experiences.  Traveling to Ireland is always wonderful, but 10 days of travel to mystical places charged with spiritual energy is life-changing.  

    Travel information including the daily itinerary, process for reservations and information about the mystical sacred sites we'll visit can be found at the Thin Places Mystical Tour of Ireland website.  The land portion of the tour (lodging, breakfast, admissions, ground transportation and some dinners) is just $1999 per person.

    Are you being called to join us?

    Don't Rush Through Thin Places

    When I travel, I take my notes into a digital recorder. Then I transcribe them later into a travel journal.  The following is a journal entry from 2007.  I was standing at Cashelkeelty Stone Circle on the Beara Peninsula in Ireland.  I don't remember writing this ... or even thinking this.  But it's advise worth sharing.

    Rushing is something one must not do when walking through thin places. It is better to see fewer thin places and not rush, than to see many and jam them into full days. 
    The journey is the important thing – not the destination.

    It is also best to approach the site without snapping pictures. Feel the site, feel the moment, listen and watch for the signs. Time will stand still. You'll lose track.

    When time becomes apparent again, that's when you take pictures... at the end of the journey. That's when you can sense what's important in that particular thin place. Approach each site with a sense of awe trying to feel the thinness and connect with the other world.

    I believe that a prayer is much more powerful in a thin place, because in a way we are already closer to God. You don’t have to concentrate or try as hard to PUT yourself in the Divine Presence or the Other world.

    You are already there.

    Rushing loses all these effects, and isn’t helpful. If I rushed to get back because of the rain or the loss off time, I wouldn’t have seen or felt as much.

    The goal is to enter INTO the thin place and experience it… not see from afar or just from the surface.

    ~Mindie Burgoyne - Cashelkeelty Stone Circle, Beara Peninsula, Ireland, 2-22-2007
    Photo - the Beara Road near Ardgroom, taken by Mindie Burgoyne 2007 (c)